Chapter 5 Test Study Guide
I. Gross Anatomy
· Know the 2 general types of bone tissue and their properties/characteristics
· What type of tissue makes up the skeleton of an embryo?
· In what type of bones do you find hematopoietic tissue in adults?
· What is the basic structural unit of compact bone?
· What is the outer protective layer on the diaphysis called? How is it attached to the compact bone underneath?
· What is “Yellow Marrow”?
· What is the name of the shaft of a long bone?
· What are the four bone “shapes”? Know some examples of each.
II. Microscopic Anatomy
· Name the three types of bone cells and describe their function(s).
III. Bone Growth and Remodeling
· How does the presence of the epiphyseal plate facilitate growth in long bones?
· What are the major differences between bones of a young person and the bones of an older person (70 or older)?
· Why is vitamin D important to bone health?
IV. Disorders/Diseases of the Skeletal System
· Know the various types of fractures and in what type of person/injury, they are most commonly observed.
· What is osteoporosis? What are measures that can be taken to prevent this disease? What are some interventions that would be suggested for someone who shows early signs of the disease?
· What are the functions of the skeletal system?
· What endocrine gland is stimulated and what hormone is released in response to low levels of calcium in the blood stream? What cell is activated?
· What endocrine gland is stimulated and what hormone is released in response to high levels of calcium in the blood stream? What cell is activated?
· What are the 3 abnormal curvatures of the spine – be able to describe each.
V. Axial Skeleton
· What parts of the skeleton are included in the “axial” skeleton?
· Parts of the sternum
· Difference between axis, atlas, and other cervical vertebrae.
· Sutures and the bones that are connected by each.
· What structure surrounds and protects the pituitary gland?
· What makes the hyoid bone unique?
· Major function of an intervertebral disc
· Which facial bones are paired…..which are not?
· In which bones (face and cranium) do we find paranasal sinuses? What are the functions of the sinuses?
· When doing CPR, what part of the thoracic cavity must you be careful about? Why?
· What is “Ricketts”? What is it caused by?
VI. Appendicular Skeleton
· Three parts of the Coxal bone.
· Which of the leg/foot bones are weight-bearing? Which are not?
VII. Differences between Male and Female Skeletons
· What are three aspects of the skeleton that would give you clues as to whether it was male or female?
· What aspect(s) of a skeleton would you observe to estimate the age of the person to which it belongs?
· What aspect(s) of a skeleton would you observe to estimate the approximate height/size of the person to which it belongs?
· Appositional growth